Diagnosis and Therapies: Complementary and Traditional Medicine

Editorial

Poisoning: A Perspective through Cumulative Toxicity

Sushant Sud*

Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Received: 12 July 2019

Accepted: 13 August 2019

Version of Record Online: 23 August 2019

Citation

Sud S (2019) Poisoning: A Perspective through Cumulative Toxicity.Diagn TherComplement Tradit Med 2019(1): 01-02.

Correspondence should be addressed to
Sushant Sud, India

E-mail: drsushantsud@gmail.com
DOI: 
10.33513/DTCT/1901-01

Copyright

Copyright © 2019 Sushant Sud. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and work is properly cited.

Prologue

In today’s situations people are more liable to altered types of poisons like slow acting poisons of growing nature. It’s not necessary that cumulative poison results solely from direct intake of toxic materials; it may also be wrought by poisoned atmosphere, impure air, water, land and as a result the exaggerated exposure to magnetic force radiations through ongoing and never ending digital gadgets, flawed food habits, nerve-racking life-style, continuous usage of any specific medication, high use of pesticides even suppressing natural urges can make a pathway towards cumulative toxicity making it very common and widespread[1,2].

Cumulative toxicity is the undesirable impact produced by the assimilated poisons. Poisonous substance from totally diversified sources like food, medicine and external atmosphere could cause cumulative toxicity. This kind of poison primarily depends on absorption, biotransformation and excretion (ADME) of the medicine. The adverse reaction of medicine is also inevitable or unpredictable. However cumulative toxicity is a predictable unfavorable reaction. Any drug can gather within the body if the speed of administration is higher than the rate of elimination. This means if a drug is excreted slowly, its perennial administration could build up a sufficiently high concentration within the body to supply toxicity e.g. heavy metals mentioned in classics, use of Castor, Atropine, Calotropis, and Strychnine etc. Substances like lead will stay deposited in bones while not built-up any immediate poisonous effect and this can be known as passive accumulation. It will take its time and will turn out the poisonous manifestations as and when it is liberated into the blood stream[3].

Reasoning of Toxicity

Generally, Ayurvedic preparations are being prescribed as variants of Herbo-Mineral (HMPs). These preparations are believed to be quick acting and condition specific. Impure heavy metals are well-known for toxicity. The attainable heavy metal connected poisonous arising from the utilization of herbo-mineral preparation is the subject of interest however traditionally there’s no agreement on a scientifically validation concerning toxic impact of heavy metals utilized in Herbo-Mineral Preparation (HMPs). There is a general mind set, tail twisting tendency, unsupported facts to assume that so called heavy metals and their compounds are extremely poisonous. This can be not 100% correct as all the metals present on the Earth’s crust and enter our bodies frequently at lower levels [4,5].

The multimillion Ayurvedic drug industries are fetching so many pharmaceutical corporate and thousands of merchandises is being marketed per annum. Desolately, none of them have given stress on the poisonous impact of herbo-mineral preparation. This ends up in decrease within the projected effectiveness, even though they are alteration and adaptation of classical formulations. This may be because of following reasons:

  • Inappropriate purification and decontamination of heavy metals utilized in HMPs.
  • The chosen formulation might not be appropriate for a particular clinical condition of an individual.
  • Unsuitable manifestation for the finished product
  • Methodology of modification for a classical drug or methodology of preparation of fresh drug may be erroneous.
  • Failure of acceptable dose fortitude [6-8].

Factors Infuriating Cumulative Toxicity

The cumulative toxicity is ascribed to the drug due to some of the so called extrinsic and intrinsic factors which are:

  • Pesticidedeposit.
  • Contamination of wide-ranging environment with toxic metals.
  • Mysterious herbal remedies.
  • Adulteration of inadvertent mixing with more toxic plants.
  • Chemical components such as toxalbumins, certain alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, glucocorticosides and volatile oils, etc.
  • Overdosage of formulations.
  • Method of preparation, combined usage of drugs.
  • Polluted land.
  • Disturbedatmosphere.
  • Toxic or harmful food[9].

Discussion and Conclusion

Out of the aforesaid factors the inappropriate purification plays a vital role in developing toxicity in formulations specifically containing metals/minerals medicine. The incidence of cumulative poison is associated to the concentration of toxic chemicals present inside the body. Within the living organism, local, systemic, short term, delayed, reversible or irreversible toxicity is also precipitated. During this state of affairs effective measures ought to be taken to inhibit biotransformation, to decrease the toxicity of compound preparations. Ayurved has spread out in front of the mass a world of medications (herbal-metals-minerals- aquatic, etc.) from an ancient time. With Ayurvedic Institutes/Organizations rapidly increasing and with larger probabilities of accumulation of poisons, an in-depth analysis that stems from Ayurved classics with written material is critically required for conserving its treasures. Cumulative poison is a slow acting poison, which has not been fully discarded from the system. It retains in the tissues for a number of years and therefore contaminates not only the tissues but also at the level of cell too. Bio-accumulation of such cumulative poisons can produce several ailments. Henceforth while dealing with the cumulative poisons cases first and foremost thing taken into consideration is the past and personal detailed history followed by appropriate clinical examination by means of Ayurvedic ideology i.e., anticipatory measures, purificatory procedures & also by using supplementary medications.

References

  1. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC, Braddock JE(1984) Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
  2. Rider CV, Boekelheide K, Catlin N, Gordon CJ, Morata T, et al. (2014) Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors. Toxicol Sci137: 3-11.
  3. LatifWani AB, Ara A, Usmani JA (2015) Lead toxicity: a review. Interdiscip Toxicol8: 55-64.
  4. Walker B, Colledge NR, Ralston S, Penman I(2014) Davidson’s Principles & Practice of Medicine. 22ndedn, Churchill Livingstone, UK. Pg no: 100.
  5. https://www.slideshare.net/JAYAKRISHNANK9/cumulative-toxicity-of-herbal-drugs
  6. https://www.aiims.edu/en/departments-and-centers/central-facilities.html?id=167
  7. Kishor MA, Anita S, Porte SM, Rohit K (2016) Cumulative Poisons & its Management with Special Reference to DushiVisha. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research4: 42-44.
  8. Singhal GD (1976) Toxicological Consideration in Ancient Indian Surgery.1stedn, Pg no:48.
  9. Kumar GB (2015) Cumulative Toxicity of Herb mineral Preparations. IAMJ 3: 710-713.
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