Journal of Soil and Plant Biology

Original Article

An Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in El Mansourah (West of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria)

Hamdi Bendif1,2*, Mohamed Djamel Miara3, Mohamed Harir1, Karim Merabti1, Nabila Souilah4, Salima Guerroudj5, Roumaissa Labza6

1Département SNV, Université de M’Sila, Algeria

2Laboratoire d’Ethnobotanique et Substance Naturelles, ENS de Kouba, Algeria

3Département de Biologie, Université Ibn Khaldoun, Algeria

4 Département de Chimie, Université de Constantine 1, Algeria

5 Département de Biologie, Université Amar Telidji, Algeria

6Département de Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaire, Université Saad Dahlab de Blida, Algeria

Received: 28 November 2018

Accepted: 18 December 2018

Version of Record Online: 28 December 2018

Citation:

Bendif H, Miara MD, Harir M, Merabti K, Souilah N, et al. (2018) Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants of El Mansourah (West of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria). J Soil Plant Biol 2018(1): 45-60.

Correspondence should be addressed to

Hamdi Bendif, Algeria

E-mail: Bendif_hamdi@yahoo.fr

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33513/JSPB/1801.05

Copyright

Copyright © 2018 Hamdi Bendif et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and work is properly cited.


Abstract

The population of the west of Bordj Bou Arréridj (communes of the Daïra of El Mansourah) uses large-scale medicinal plant resources. This area is very rich and has many species of undeniable medicinal interest. The valorisation of this natural heritage requires an ethnobotany study which allows to describe the different uses of medicinal plants by the local population and to establish the catalogue of medicinal plants and their therapeutic uses. Our survey, conducted in March-May 2015, using 200 questionnaires, we identified 78 medicinal plants used in traditional medicine  of the region studied. Which are divided into 40 families, of which six are the most dominant, including Lamiaceae (10 species), Asteraceae (9 species), Apiaceae (5 species), Poaceae (4 species), Fabaceae (3 species), and Chenopodiaceae (3 species). Leaves are the most used part. The majority of the remedies are prepared in the form of infusion. The almost exclusive use of the local population for medicinal plant species in its daily care and the opening of a more or less organized market of these plants will only accentuate the pressure on these medicinal resources which can lead to the disappearance of some of the most vulnerable species. It is therefore urgent to adopt a sustainable management approach for the safeguarding and preservation of medicinal plants in these regions. The results obtained are a very valuable source of information for the region studied and for the national medicinal flora. They could be a database for further research in the fields of phytochemistry and pharmacology and for the purpose of searching for new natural substances.

Keywords: Ethnobotany Survey; Medicinal Plants; Therapeutic Uses; West of Bordj Bou Arréridj (Algeria)

Introduction

Since the dawn of time, our ancestors have used plants to heal themselves and to overcome suffering and improve human health [1]. From generation to generation, they passed on their knowledge and simple experiences by striving when they could record them in writing. Since the last decades, the medicinal plant has been making a return in strength, based on safe values, tested long dates by our ancestors. The ethnobotany and the ethnopharmacology relate the knowledge of traditional physicians and the current science. It should be noted that the purpose of ethnopharmacology and ethnobotany is therefore to understand the practices and representations relating to the health, disease, description and therapeutic evaluation of plants used in Traditional Pharmacopoeias. Indeed, there are about 500,000 species of plants on earth, of which 80,000 have medicinal properties [2]. The therapeutic use of medicinal plants is very present and especially developing countries, in the absence of a modern medical system [3]. Algeria has a large variety of medicinal plants that have never been completely abandoned and people have never stopped using traditional medicine, which has led to maintaining a living therapeutic tradition despite the Spectacular development of modern medicine [4], also allows Algeria to occupy a privileged place among the Mediterranean countries that have a long medical tradition and traditional know-how based on medicinal plants, these plants are potential natural remedies that can be used in curative and preventative treatment. This is the reason for this study, which aims to contribute to the knowledge of medicinal plants used by villagers in the western region of Bordj Bou Arréridj (Algeria). To produce a catalogue of these plants in the so-called region and to gather as much information as possible about the therapeutic uses practised by the local population. For this, surveys were carried out with the population of the communes of the Daïra of El Mansourah. Indeed, it is very important to translate this traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge in order to revalue it, to preserve it and to use it in a rational way.

Materials and Methods

Presentation of the study area

The study area (Daïra of El Mansoura) (Latitude, 31° 97' 96'' N; longitude, 03° 74' 59'' E; elevation, 698 m) (Figure 1), is located in the western part of the Willaya of Bordj Bou Arréridj (Algeria) about 30 km from the chief place of the wilaya covers an area geographical area of about 836 km2, this Daïra includes the following communes: Mansoura, Ouled Sidi Brahim, Harraza, Ben Daoud, and El Nagaraju (Figure 2). The study area is limited to the south by the wilaya of Me Sila, Bejaia to the north, Bouira to the west, and Bordj Bou Arréridj chief place to the east. The terrain of the region is presented in two aspects: a mountainous region, the forest massif of the zone of the Bibanns (Ouled Sidi Brahim, Harraza, Ben Daoud), and an area of high Plains (Mansoura and El Nagaraju) [5]. The climate is semi-arid continental in harsh winters and dry and warm summers. However, there are rainfall contrasts linked to the altitude between the different regions of the area. The main species that make up the forest background are Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Green Oak (Quercus ilex), Atlas Cedar (Cedro atlantica), and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), the large forests of Aleppo pine are concentrated in the region of the Bibanns. On the other hand, steppe formations composed mainly of white sagebrush and Alpha, whose state of degradation is advanced, also it is rich of several types of animals and birds [6]. The population of the region is dichotomized in urban and rural areas. The urban population is low. The rural (periphery of the region) are essentially composed of tribes of Hammadid to Mansoura, Berber tribe of the Sanhaja to Ben Daoud that the various revolutions have not moved from their mountains, the Dréat who are at the origin of the foundation of the village of Mansoura. The population distribution of this region is included in the table 1. The region has a very diversified economic potential that contributes remarkably to its socio-economic development. One of these strengths is agriculture.

Communes

Distribution of the population

 

Male

Female

Total

Number of investigations

Mansoura

11.923

11.483

23.406

50

Ouled Sidi Brahim

1.536

1.566

3.102

27

Herraza

3.428

3.258

6.686

45

Ben daoud

8.032

7.753

15.785

28

El mehir

8.779

8.982

17.761

50

Daïra de Mansoura

33.698

33.042

66.740

200

Table 1: Distribution of the population of the study area. 

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 1: General view of the Harraza region on the left and Ouled Sidi Brahim on the right (Photo Bendif H, 2015).

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Daïra of el Mansourah Wilaya of BBA Algeria

Figure 2: Geographical location of the El Mansoura Daïra.

 

Methodology

The ethnobotanical study is carried out following a series of surveys (Appendix 1) based on the semi-structured interview method [7]. The survey was conducted from March to April 2015 spread over 200 questionnaire cards, with a random population sample of the following communes (Table 1). The time spent on each interview was about half an hour. The information collected concerned the profile of the interviewee (age, sex, level of study, family situation and habitat), and the ethno-pharmacological data for each plant include the common local name, the uses, the part (s) used, the method of preparation appendix 1. The identification of the harvested material was done first in the field and completed at the Ethnobotany and natural substance laboratory, ENS of Kouba, Algeria. The determination of the scientific nomenclature was carried out at the species level, thanks to the documents: Nouvelle flamme d’Algerie from Quézel & Santa [8]. We also collected samples of the medicinal plant species of the region study to validate and / or verify their local names with several interviewees. Finally, computer processing was necessary to better analyze the data that were collected during our ethnobotanical surveys. For this, we opted for Excel 2007 software. This allowed us to perform a set of efficient operations in a short time.

Results and Discussion

The results obtained are listed according to therapeutic practices, the use of plants and the treatment of diseases. For all the listed species we will represent them in the form of a catalogue. The use of medicinal plants in the study area is prevalent in all age groups, with predominance in people aged over 60 years with 48%. The age groups [40-59], [20-39] and [< 20] then come with a percentage of 42%, 8% and 2% respectively. Knowledge of the uses of medicinal plants and their properties are generally acquired following a long accumulated experience and transmitted from one generation to the next [9]. The transmission of this knowledge is in danger at present because it is not always ensured (Figure 3). There is also a loss of information on medicinal plants, which is due to the mistrust of some people, especially young ones, who tend not to believe in this traditional medicine. In this region, men and women are concerned with the use of medicinal plants. However, medicinal plants are used by both women and men (73% vs 27%) (Figure 4). These results confirm the results of other ethnobotanical work carried out at the national level [10]; In the region of Ouennougha (M’sila), which showed that women are more holders of traditional herbal knowledge. This is explained by the fact that women are concerned with the collection of medicinal plants, drying, storing and preparing recipes for the care of family members, this can be explained by their responsibility as mothers, it is they who give first aid especially for their children. These results confirm other ethnobotanical work carried out at the national level, case studies of Rebbas K [10] in the region of Ouennougha (Sila). The unemployed make up the vast majority of users of medicinal plants with 65%, because plants are available year-round in their environment, and plants are cheaper compared to medicines, retirees occupy 20% of users, however, for employed people, a rate of 10% is noted. And last 5% for herbalists (Figure 5). Medicinal plants are much more used by married people (80.80%) than by singles (19.20%) (Figure 6). As these allow them to avoid or minimize the physical burdens required by the doctor and pharmacist and also the fact that they are responsible as parents to give first aid especially for their children. According to the census carried out in 2015 by the DPSB, the region has an average level of schooling, in the study area, the vast majority of users of medicinal plants are illiterate with a percentage of 60.27% (Figure 7). This relatively high percentage is directly correlated with the level of study of the local plant-user population. Nevertheless, those with primary school level have a non-negligible percentage of medicinal plants, which is 25.89%, while those with a secondary and university level use very little of the plants Medicinal (secondary 8.48%, academic 5.36%). This clearly high illiteracy rate among medicinal plant users can be a real obstacle to local development. It handicaps the region at the level of the creation of its own elite, and promotes the degradation of the natural resources of the region, whose vegetation of the forests of El Mansourah. The majority of the information of the respondents originates the experience of their predecessors (relatives, neighbors and friends) with 89%, indicating that the population knows the therapeutic virtues of plants in a traditional and empirical way. While only 9% of their information originated from herbalists and 2% for reading (Figure 8).

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 3: Distribution of frequency of use of medicinal plants by age.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 4 : Distribution of frequency of use of medicinal plants by sex.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 5: Distribution of the frequency of use of medicinal plants according to the profession.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 6: Distribution of frequency of use of medicinal plants according to family situation.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 7: Distribution of frequency of use of medicinal plants by level of study.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 8: Distribution of the frequency of use of medicinal plants according to the origin of their information.

 

Medicinal plants used

Using the 200 questionnaires established, we identified 75 medicinal plants used by the population of the study area. The appendix 2 contains the list of plants. For each plant listed, we give the scientific name, the French name, vernacular names, the family, the used part, the therapeutic effects and the method of preparation adopted by the local population, as well as the frequency of use.

Floristic analysis

The results of the Ethnobotany survey allowed us to set up a list of 75 medicinal species used by the local population, these medicinal species belong to 67 genera and 39 botanical families. The 75 species are part of the branching of the flowering plants with a clear dominance of the dicotyledons on the monocotyledons. The most represented families in the region are the Lamiaceae (10), the Asteraceae (9), the Apiaceae (5) and the Poaceae (4) (Figure 9). The remaining botanical families have only one or two species. These families alone hold 36 species (or 48%) of the overall workforce. On all the results obtained, we have collected the most used species in traditional herbal medicine by the local population, which are: Artemisia Herba-Alba Asso., Paronychia argentea Lam., Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb., Pinus halepensis Mill., Lavandula stoechas L., and Marrubium vulgare L. These species were reported by all informants (over 85%) (Figure 10). The remainder of the medicinal plants, not reported in figure 10, were mentioned only by a few informants.

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 9: Distribution of species by botanical family.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 10: Frequency of use of medicinal species.

 

Pharmacological analysis

Each part of the plant has therapeutic properties. For this, medicinal plants can be used whole, or in part (leaf, fruit, stem, root, bark) [11]. In our study area, the parts used are classified in order of decreasing importance: leaves 35.30%, aerial parts 22.8%, fruits 10.5%, leaves-stems 8.2%, bulbs 7.2%, seeds 5.87%, leaf-flowers 4.7%, roots 3.5%, are the most used parts. The remainder for stems, fruit-cuticles by 1.17% (Figure 11). The ease and speed of harvesting maybe the cause of the high rate of foliage use by the region’s population [12,13]. In herbal medicine, there are several methods of plant preparation, depending on the type of use [11]. And in order to facilitate the administration of the drug. Infusion is the most common method of preparation (42.74%). It is followed by a decoction (22.9%) and powder (12.21%), (Figure 12). Other modes like fumigation, poultice and maceration represent a small percentage. Most of the users of medicinal plants in the western region of Bordj Bou Arréridj use medicinal plants with non-precise doses. The dose is still random which is manifested by adverse health effects because it says “no substance is poison itself, it is the dose that makes the poison”.

The analysis of the types of diseases treated by medicinal plants highlights that many of these plants are used in the treatments of the digestive system by 43 plants, the external use of plants takes the second place by 36 plants, the cardiovascular diseases relieved by 26 medicinal species, and in the end the respiratory system and the urinary tract are treated by 12 species (Figure 13).

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 11: Ranking of parts used by number of medicinal species used.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 12: Distribution of methods of preparation.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 13: Types of diseases treated by medicinal plants recences.

 

The Ethnobotany survey found that the majority of medicinal species are used mainly against diseases of the digestive system (43 species), with a different number of uses (Figure 14). Some species in the study area are used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases (12 species), with a different number of uses (Figure 15). Our result revealed that 12 medicinal species are used primarily against diseases of the urinary tract, with a different number of use (Figure 16). Several species of the study area are used for the treatment of skin diseases and external uses (36 species), with a different number of uses (Figure 17). Our result showed that 26 medicinal species are used primarily against diseases that affect the cardiovascular system, with a different number of uses (Figure 18). 38% of people in the western region of BBA believe that plants Medicines allow a cure for treated diseases. 50% believe that medicinal plants only allow an improvement in health status. While 12% of the local population believe that medicinal plants cause side effects, toxic states and even worsening of the disease especially in the case of dermatological diseases (Figure 19).

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 14: Species used to treat diseases of the digestive system.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 15: Species used to treat diseases of the respiratory system.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 16: Species used to treat diseases of the urinary system.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 17: Species used to treat dermal diseases and external uses.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 18: Species used to treat diseases affecting the cardiovascular system.

 

An-Ethnobotanical-survey-of-Medicinal-Plants-in-El-Mansourah-West-of-Bordj-Bou-Arreridj-Algeria

Figure 19: Distribution of results of care.

 

Conclusion

Through this work, we are interested in the ethnobotany study of medicinal plants of the western region of Bordj Bou Arréridj, especially of the Daïra of El-Mansoura. This study allowed us to reveal the relative importance given to traditional herbal medicine in the health system to the regions studied, and to confirm that the use of medicinal plants in the therapeutic field still persists despite the revolution in medical technology. Similarly, the collection and analysis of the collected data has made it possible to transform the popular oral knowledge in this region into knowledge transcribed by the establishment of a catalogue of medicinal plants used and their therapeutic uses. The floristic analysis of the results obtained by this study allowed us to identify 75 medicinal species distributed in 39 families, with the prevalence of six families: Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Poaceae, Fabaceae. Similarly, the most commonly used species in this region are in numbers of 6, most of which are spontaneous and relatively abundant. Thus, the results obtained showed that the leaves are the most used parts and infusion is the bulk of the preparation of plant drugs in traditional herbal medicine. In addition, the distribution of the frequency of use of medicinal plants according to the group of treated diseases has shown that digestive pathologies are the major therapeutic indications. In addition, this study has helped to appreciate and know the traditional practices used by the population of the western region of BBA. The richness of this know-how appears through the results obtained but it is important, on the one hand to extend this kind of investigations to other regions of the country in order to safeguard this precious cultural heritage by a complete monograph and on the other hand validate experimentally the remedies enumerated by rigorous scientific protocols.

References

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  2. Quyou A (2003) Mise au point d’une base de données sur les plantes médicinales. Exemple d’utilisation pratique de cette base. Thèse de Doct, Univ Ibn Tofail, Morocco. Pg: 110.
  3. Tabuti JR, Lye KA, Dhillion SS (2003) Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. J Ethnopharmacol 88: 19-44.
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Appendix 1: Questionnaire on the ethnobotanical survey of plants commonly used in the study area.

 

Families

Scientific names

French names

Arabic vernacular names

Used part

Therapeutic effects

Preparation method

Cartaceae

Opuntia ficus indica Mill

Figuier de barbarie

Hindi

 

Leaves

The use of the oils as a treatment for the hair

Decoction

Caryophylaceae

 

Paronychia

argentea (Pourr.) Lamk.

Thé arabe

Kassarat El Hadjer

Leaves

Diuretic, appetizer, febrifuge, aphrodisiac, aseptic, treats inflammation of the urinary tract, kidneys and gallbladder (dysuria).

Infusion.

Césalpineae

Ceratoniasiliqua

Caroubier

Kharoub

Leaves

Analgesics, treatment of skin spots on all large peas.

Cru, Decoction.

Amaranthaceae

Atriplex

halimus

Arroche arbustive

Gtaf

The aerial part

Eczema, healing, some diseases of the skin (scab).

Decoction,

Beta vulgaris L.

Betterave rouge

Chamandar

Bulbes

Antianemic, aperitive, digestive, refreshing, remineralizing, tonic and it is recommended in case of asthenia and affections of the liver.

Cru, cuit.

Spinaciaoleracea L.

L'épinard

Selg

The aerial part

Anti-inflammatory, Antidiuretic,

Cuit.

Cupressaceae

Juniperusoxycedrus L.

OxycèdreCadier

Tagga

Leaves

Stomachic, sudorific, diuretic, stimulant and antiseptic, cholesterol.
- Its oil used to treat skin diseases (eczema).

Infusion,

Powder.

Juniperus

communis L.

 

Genévrier de Phénicie

Aârâr

The aerial part

Antiparasitic, antiseptic and astringent, analgesic, detergent (wound treatment).

Infusion,

Decoction.

Fabaceae

Cassia angustifoliaVahl

Séné

sana makia

The aerial part

Facilitates digestion, intestinal gases.

Infusion.

Retamaretam.

Retam

Rtem

The aerial part

Healing, used in skin conditions (boils), treats irritations of the eyes, against diarrhea, feverish diseases and solitary worms, Détersif.

Infusion,

Decoction.

TrigonellaFoenum-graecum L.

fenugrec

Elhalba

Seeds

Softener, anabolic, febrifuge, diuretic,
galactagogue, hypoglycemic, against stomach pains, weight loss, bronchitis, as hypoglycemic and depurative.

Powder,

Infusion,

Decoction

Fagacees

Quercus ilex

Chêne vert

Kerouch - Ballout

fruits

Leaves

Antidiarrheal, antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge, haemostatic
Sweet tassels are nutritious and tonic.

Cru, cuit.

Globulariaceae

 

Globularia

alypumL.

 

Tesslegha

flower heads

Astringent, cholagogue, depurative, diuretic, laxative (depending on the dose, it can become purgative), stomachic and sudorific.

Infusion,

Decoction

Juglan dacees

Juglans regia

Noyer commun

Eldjouz

Leaves,

the kernels

Astringent, antidiabetic, stomachic, depurative,
antiseptic and vermifuge, useful for skin diseases.

Infusion,

Powder.

Lamiaceae (Labieae )

Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.

Ivette

Chendgoura

The aerial part

Antiseptic, astringent, antirheumatic, antidiabetic, hypotensive, digestive problems, antidiarrheal.

Infusion, Decoction

Powder

Lavandula

staechas L.

Lavande sauvage

Mezir

The aerial part

Antiseptic, antispasmodic, against liver disorders dyspepsia, intestinal gas, sedative.

Infusion,

Maceration.

Marrubium

vulgare

Marrube blanc

Merriouat

Leaves

Used against diseases of the liver, diseases of the respiratory tract, treats febrile states (in young children), expectorant, antidiabetic, resolutive, sedative, stomachic and bitter tonic, toothache, Hypnotic.

Infusion,

Decoction,

Maceration

Mentha

Pulegium

 

La menthe pouliot ou pouliot

Fliou

Partie aérienne

Anti-hypertensive, antispasmodic.

Infusion.

Menthaspicata L.

Menthe

Naanaa

Leaves, stems

Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic,
carminative, cholagogue, digestive, stimulating, tonic, Hypnotic.

Infusion,

Powder.

Ocimumbasilicium L.

Basilic

Ahbak

Leaves stems

Facilitates digestion, calms abdominal pain, stomachic, grains used for heart patients, Hypnotic

Infusion,

Powder.

Origanum

Glandulosum

Desf.

Menthe-pouliot

Zaater

Leaves,

Leaves used against rheumatic pains. Anti-hypertensive, hepatic tellers, anti-tumoral, eczema, digestive

Decoction,

Infusion,

Partie aérienne

The mixture of Leaves, and ends of the stems used as an herbal tea to treat flu and respiratory problems (bronchitis).

Infusion.

Fumigation.

Rosmarinus

officinalis L.

Romarin

AklilAzir

 

Leaves -stems.

Antiseptic, choleretic, cholagogue, antispasmodic, against liver disorders dyspepsia, intestinal gas, asthenia, migraines and rheumatism, used to relieve leg pain due to fatigue, stimulating the functioning of the gall bladder, stimulating skin, scalp and parasiticide.

Infusion,

Decoction.

Maceration

Teucrium

polium L.

Germandepolium

Khayata

Flower heads and Leaves.

Decrease fever in children, treatment of diabetes, anti-inflammatory, astringent, detoxifying, febrifuge, bitter and hypoglycemic tonic, depurative, vulnerary, antiseptic, astringent, hemostatic and antiemetic.

Infusion,

Powder.

Thymus vulgaris L.

Thym

Zâaitra

Leaves-stems

Hypertension, carminative, diabetes,
vermifuge, cholesterol, tonsillitis, stomachic.

Infusion.

Laureacees

Laurus nobilis L.

laurier

Rand

Leaves

Used for skin problems like allergy.

Powder.

Liliaceae

Allium cepa L.

Oignon

El basla

The bulbs

Treatment of earache, infected wounds, thorax, otitis,
gangrene, eyes, bronchitis, antiputrid, constipation,
headache, hair loss, lungs and breathing, analgesic, antiasthenic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiscorbutic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic (gastrointestinal), cholagogue, diuretic, emmenagogue,
emollient, balancing glandular,
Fomentation. Treat Otitis, fomentation.

Cru,

Decoction.

Cuit

Allium sativum L.

 

Ail

El thome

The bulbs

Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal (with antibiotic action), depurative, expectorant, ebrifuge, hypoglycemic, stimulant, sudorific, tonic and vermifuge, lowering cholesterol levels and blood pressure. It thins the blood.

Cru,

Maceration,

Decoction

Lythraceae

Punica

granatum L.

Grenadine

kchour

eroumane

Cuticles of fruits

Intestinal gas, stomachic and tonic, used as a mouthwash to treat the mouth problem (Aphtus). Diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.

Infusion,

Powder.

Malvaceae

Malva

sylvestris

Mauve

Khoubeïze

M’djir

The aerial part

-Heals boils and cutaneous affections (abscesses, tumors, insect bites ...).
- Leaves and flowers clean irritated eyes.
- For inflammations and urinary and digestive disorders, soothing, antiseptic, bicicidal, soothing, emollient, laxative, pectoral, resolutive, hypnotic

Infusion,

Decoction.

Hibiscus sabdariffa

Roselle;Karkadé

El karkadya

Flowers

Flowers in Decoction are used against anemia and blood pressure

Infusion.

Mauraceae

 

Maurus alba

 

Murier blanc

 

El tout

 

fruits

Antidiabetic,

Cru.

Moraceae

(Fagaceae)

 

Ficus

Carica

L.

Ficus

Dalya

fruits

 

Antiasthenic, depurative, antidiarrhetic, emollient,
laxative, nutritive, pectoral and tonic.

Cru.

Maceration (huile)

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globuluslabill

Eucalyptus

KalitoussKaffour

Leaves

Action antibiotic, antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge, it has a calming action against rheumatic pains and burns.

Fumigation.

 

Oleaceae

 

Olea europea L. Var : Sativa L.

Olivier cultivé

Zitoune

leaves,
fruits
(fruits and oil)
and the bark

Leaves and bark: astringent, febrifuges, hypoglycemic, tonic, hypotensive. Oil and fruits: softeners, anti-hemorrhoids,cholagogues, emollients, hypocholesterolizers,
hypotensive, laxative, nutritive, resolving, sedative Olive oil protects the mucous membranes in caseCaustic absorption, beneficial action to treat stomatitis inflammation and
ophthalmia.

 

Infusion.

Cru, cuit.

Olea

europea L.

Var. : Oleastre

Olivier sauvage

Zebboudj

Leaves

Leaves and bark are astringent, tonic, febrifuges, hypotensive.
- Leaves diuretic, hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, Odontalgic.

Infusion.

Papaveraceae

Papaver rhoeas L.

Coqueliquot - Pavot des champs

Benaâmanegboubch

 

Flowers

Antispasmodic, soothing, soothing, pectoral, sedative, slightly hypnotic

Infusion.

Poaceae

Ampelodesmamauritanicum

ampélodesme de Mauritanie

Diss

The aerial part

Antidiabetic, anti hypertensive

Decoction

Hordeum

vulgareL.

l’orge

El chàire

Seeds,

 

Improved health, diabetes, anemia, tuberculosis,
stomach, thinness, colon, rheumatism, kidney diseases
and urinary tract, jaundice and diarrhea.

Powder,

Infusion,

Flour.

Stipa tenacissima(Loefl.exl.) Kunth

Alfa

Halfa

Les Leaves

Used in the treatment of chronic scalp ulcers, treatment of kidney stones, antidiabetic, slimming

Infusion,

Triticum

vulgareVill.

Le blé

El gamh

Seeds

Wheat considered a complete and nutritious food, provided that all its constituents (envelope ...) are preserved. Recognized as nourishing, revitalizing, it contains all the elements necessary for the proper functioning of the body. It is recommended in case of asthenia, anemia, growth, pregnancy, breastfeeding, convalescence, detergent,

Infusion,

Cru, cuit,

Powder.

Flour.

Renonculaceae

Clematiscirrhosa L.

Climatite à vrille

Zenzou

Leaves

Leaves with irritating properties used in the treatment of neuralgia and rheumatic pain.

Decoction.

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus alaternus

Alaterne

M’liles

The aerial part

Astringent, laxative, purgative, effective against jaundice
Hepatic and Chlorosis.

Decoction.

Zizyphus lotus

Jujubier sauvage

Sedra

roots

Roots treat lung diseases and jaundice.

Powder.

 

Cru.

fruits

Fruits with pectoral and emollient activity.

Rosaceae

Crataegus azarolus L.

Aubépine azerollier

Zaaroura

Leaves

Analgesic, antispasmodic, Antidiarrheal, vermifuge, intestinal gas.

Infusion.

Cru.

RubusulmifoliusRubusidaeus L. (ettout)

Ronce

 

El Allaigue

Resin

Antidiarrammatic, tonic, depurative, healing, cleans wounds and ulcers.

Cru.

 

 

Rutacees

 

 

Ruta

Chalepensis

Rue d’Alep

Fidjel

 

Leaves

Analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory (ophthalmia), diuretic, sedative, sudorific, deworming, breathing problems.

Infusion,

Decoction.

Ruta

montana (Clus.) L.

Rue

Awarmi

The aerial part

Analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory (ophthalmic), emermagogue diuretic, sedative, sudorific, vermifuge

Decoction.

Salicaceae

Populusnigra L.

Populus alba L.

Peuplier

Asafsaf

Leaves

Sedative, vulnerable

Infusion.

Tamaricacees

Tamarix gallica

Tamaris

Tarfa

Leaves

Diuretic, haemostatic, sudorific, analgesic, hepatic, Cardiovascular.

Infusion.

Thymélaeaceae

ThymelaeahirsutaEndl.

Passerine rise

Methnane

Leaves

The passerine is expectorant, anthelmintic and hydragogue,
the Leaves Decoction is recommended against dandruff

Infusion,

Decoction.

Theaceae

Camellia sinensis

Kuntze

t

Tai lakhdar

Leaves

Headache (Headache), Used to treat kidney problems.
The tea powder as a suppository inside the anus against hemorrhoids. A Decoction of tea is recommended against intestinal pain.A Decoction of tea is recommended against hypertension.Flatuosity (Intestinal gas) colon, insomnia.

Infusion.

Powder.

Decoction.

Urticaceae

Urtica.

dioica L.

Grande ortie

Azekdouf

Leaves

Diuretic, anti-bleeding.

Infusion

Urtica

urens L.

 

Ortie

Brûlante

 

Horeig

The aerial part

Vermifuge, analgesics, flatuosity,
rubefacient.

Decoction

Vitaceae

Vitis

La vigne

El dalya

Leaves

Headache (minimized abdominal pain, absorbed sunlight).

Decoction.

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Gingembre

Zandjabil

bulbes

Diuretic, febrifuges, stomachic, headache (headache), anti-tired. Powder rhizome mixed with pure honey is used against cooling,
the gases of the intestine, the opening of the blood vessels. Treatment of sinusitis.

Infusion,

Powder.

Zygophyllaceae

Peganum

harmala.

Peganum -Harmel

 

Harmel

Leaves

It is attributed the analgesic (rheumatic pains), aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. The euphoric effect is due to the presence of alkaloids.

Decoction.

Seeds

Harmel Seeds have also been used as a galactagogue, emmenagogue and vermifuge.

Appendix 2: List of medicinal plants identified in the study area for their therapeutic properties and traditional uses.

 

 

 

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